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Equine disease summary for 1st quarter of 2013 published

The EHV1 virus

The EHV1 virus.

The International Collating Center in Newmarket, England, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks in the first quarter of 2013*.

  • Reports of contagious equine metritis (CEM) were received from Germany, Ireland, and the USA. Three stallions and one mare, all non-thoroughbreds, were confirmed positive for Taylorella equigenitalis in Germany. Ireland diagnosed CEM in a non-thoroughbred stallion, which has since been successfully treated. Three recently imported Dutch Warmblood mares were cultured positive for T. equigenitalis in post-entry quarantine in Kentucky, USA. California reported detection of the organism in two mares and two stallions, all non-thoroughbreds, none of them recently imported. One of the mares had been bred to one of the positive stallions in 2012. The original source of infection for this outbreak is still undetermined.
  • Strangles was reported in France (two outbreaks), Ireland, Sweden (endemic) and the United States (outbreaks in Kentucky, Maine, Ohio, and South Carolina). Equine influenza was only recorded in the US, with outbreaks confirmed in Florida, Ohio, and Oregon. Two non-thoroughbred stallions were diagnosed carriers of equine arteritis virus in Germany.
  • Equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 related diseases were reported from France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Sweden, Britain, and the US. EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in France (three outbreaks), the Britain (three outbreaks), and the US (numerous outbreaks in various states). Abortion due to EHV-1 was recorded in France (six outbreaks), Germany (five cases), Ireland (three outbreaks, one involving two cases of neonatal pneumonitis, and the other two outbreaks involving five mares), Japan (17 cases on 11 premises), Sweden (one outbreak), Britain (two outbreaks, including one case in a mare and another involving a fatal case in a neonatal foal), and the US (five isolated cases).
  • EHV-1 neurologic disease was confirmed in Germany (seven premises), Ireland (one case), Britain (two cases on two premises), and the US. The US recorded a significant number of outbreaks in some states during the first three months of 2013. Wild type and mutant (neuropathogenic) strains of EHV-1 were associated with the US outbreaks. Outbreaks involving wild type virus were characterized by low morbidity and low to zero case-fatality rates.
  • Respiratory disease associated with EHV-4 was diagnosed in France (13 outbreaks), Germany (one case), Japan (6 cases on one premises), and the US (numerous cases/outbreaks recorded).
  • The US reported a number of cases of equine herpesvirus 2 or 5 infection in several states, the clinical significance of which remains to be determined.
  • Equine infectious anemia was recorded by France and the US. The former diagnosed a fatal case in a donkey on Island La Réunion. The disease was confirmed on two premises in California, one a “bush track” facility engaged in non-sanctioned racing (two positives of 16 tested). A further case was diagnosed on a second premises, epidemiologically related to the first.
  • Reports of equine piroplasmosis were received from France (endemic), Switzerland (a single case), the United Arab Emirates (endemic in non-Thoroughbreds, periodic clinical cases), and California, US (five positive cases of Theileria equi on one premises and two on another).
  • Salmonellosis was recorded by Germany (one case), Ireland (one case), and the US (disease diagnosed in several states; species Groups B and C2 involved). Three cases of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis were reported from the USA. Cases/outbreaks of Lawsonia intracellularis infection were confirmed in foals in a number of states, with Kentucky recording 16 cases.
  • The US also reported 28 cases of leptospiral abortion in Kentucky and 20 cases of nocardioform placentitis and abortion (six due to Crossiella equi and 14 due to Amycolatopsis spp).
  • A non-fatal case of Ross River virus infection was reported from the Northern Territory, Australia. A number of outbreaks of Rhodococcus equi infection were diagnosed in various states in the USA.

*Fourth Quarter Report for Australia

The summary was published by Equine Disease Quarterly, produced by the Gluck Equine Research Center at the University of Kentucky. The publication is funded by underwriters at Lloyd’s, London, brokers, and and their Kentucky agents.

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